Rebuilding the Old Order The New Tycoons: John D. The New Tycoons: J. Politics of the Gilded Age Labor vs. Eugene V.
Debs and American Socialism Artistic and Literary Trends The Print Revolution The Wounded Knee Massacre The Election of Booker T. DuBois Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom The Panama Canal The Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations Fads and Heroes Old Values vs. Domestic and International Politics Social and Cultural Effects of the Depression An Evaluation of the New Deal Pearl Harbor The Decision to Drop the Bomb Domestic Challenges Voices against Conformity Separate No Longer?
Martin Luther King Jr. Black Power Years of Withdrawal Triangular Diplomacy: U. Roe v. Flower Power The New Right The End of the Cold War Republicans vs. The End of the American Century. Kheel Center. Cornell University. Child Labor in America This site features extraordinary photographs of children at work in America. They worked in the mills and factories, as "newsies," miners, and street vendors. They picked fruit and vegetables and shrimp and cleaned fish for market. This look at the youngest side of the labor-management equation includes notes from the photographer further describing the scenes he recorded nearly a century ago.
All the principles of generating electricity had been worked out in the 19th century, but by its end these had only just begun to produce electricity on a large scale. The 20th century witnessed a colossal expansion of electrical power generation and distribution. The general pattern has been toward ever-larger units of production, using steam from coal- or oil-fired boilers. Economies of scale and the greater physical efficiency achieved as higher steam temperatures and pressures were attained both reinforced this tendency. As the market for electricity increased, so did the distance over which it was transmitted, and the efficiency of transmission required higher and higher voltages.
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The small direct-current generators of early urban power systems were abandoned in favour of alternating-current systems, which could be adapted more readily to high voltages. Transmission over a line of miles km was established in California in at , volts, and Hoover Dam in the s used a line of miles km at , volts. The latter case may serve as a reminder that hydroelectric power , using a fall of water to drive water turbines, was developed to generate electricity where the climate and topography make it possible to combine production with convenient transmission to a market.
Remarkable levels of efficiency were achieved in modern plants. One important consequence of the ever-expanding consumption of electricity in the industrialized countries has been the linking of local systems to provide vast power grids, or pools, within which power can be shifted easily to meet changing local needs for current. History of technology. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction General considerations Social involvement in technological advances Modes of technological transmission Technology in the ancient world The beginnings—Stone Age technology to c.
Load Previous Page. The 20th century Technology from to Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience. Load Next Page. More About. President Richard Nixon —74 radically transformed American policy, with the aid of his top advisor Henry Kissinger.
Moscow and Beijing went along, and accepted Nixon's terms of pulling their support away from Vietnam. This allowed Nixon to turn that war over to the government of South Vietnam, withdrawing all American and Allied troops, while continuing a bombing threat. The Vietnamization policy seem to work until , when North Vietnam militarily conquered South Vietnam as the United States stood by without intervening.
The Nixon Doctrine announced in July shifted the main responsibility for the defense of an ally, to the ally itself, especially regarding combat. The United States would work on the diplomacy, provide financial help and munitions, and help train the allied army. The United States would maintain its small naval force of three ships in the Gulf, stationed since World War II in Bahrain , but would take on no other formal security commitments.
A war for independence broke out in East Pakistan in with India joining in to defeat Pakistan, an American ally. Nixon sent a carrier group to the Bay of Bengal to symbolize support for Pakistan but without any combat action. However they realized the American public would not accept hostilities against a fellow democracy. Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would risk Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China.
To demonstrate to China the bona fides of the United States as an ally, and in direct defiance of the US Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. India resented the American role for decades. Democrat Jimmy Carter defeated Ford in the election of , but his foreign-policy became mired in endless difficulties, including a proxy war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, and a confrontation with the new anti-American regime in Iran.
Carter initially wanted to nominate George Ball as Secretary of State, but he was vetoed by Brzezinski as too dovish. Vance was a strong advocate of disarmament. Vance tried to advance arms limitations by working on the SALT II agreement with the Soviet Union, which he saw as the central diplomatic issue of the time, but Brzezinski lobbied for a tougher more assertive policy vis-a-vis the Soviets.
New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century
He argued for strong condemnation of Soviet activity in Africa and in the Third World as well as successfully lobbying for normalized relations with the People's Republic of China in Brzezinski took control of the negotiations with Beijing. Vance was marginalized and his influence began to wane.
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When revolution erupted in Iran in late , the two were divided on how to support the long-time ally the Shah of Iran. Vance argued in favor of demanding reforms while Brzezinski urged the Shah to crack down. Unable to obtain a direct course of action from Carter, the mixed messages that the Shah received from Vance and Brzezinski contributed to his confusion and indecision as he fled Iran in January and his regime collapsed.
He was succeeded by Edmund Muskie. His main action was a dramatic increase in military spending, and a heavy investment in high-tech weapons that the Soviets, with their primitive computer systems, were unable to match. The Reagan administration made dramatic increases in defense spending one of their three main priorities on taking office, along with cutting taxes and welfare. The transition to the new professional all-professional force was finalized, and the draft forgotten.
A dramatic expansion of salary bases and benefits for both enlisted and officers made career service much more attractive. Under the aggressive leadership of Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger , the development of the B-1 bomber was reinstated, and there was funding for a new B-2 bomber, as well as cruise missiles , the MX missile , and a ship Navy.
The new weaponry was designed with Soviet targets in mind. In terms of real dollars after taxation, defense spending jump 34 percent between in Reagan's two terms, defense spending totaled about 2 trillion dollars, but even so it was a lower percentage of the federal budget or have the GDP, then before There were also major arms sales to build up allies as well. In its first term administration looked at arms control measures with deep suspicion. However, after the massive buildup, and the second term it looked at them with favor and achieve major arms reductions with Mikhail Gorbachev.
He negotiated a series of compromises with Reagan, that weakened Soviet power. In , all the East European satellites revolted in overthrew Moscow's control. West Germany took over East Germany. In , Russia overthrew communism, and at the end of the year Gorbachev lost power and the Soviet Union was dissolved. However, he was highly inattentive to details and let his senior staff, and sometimes his junior staff, make the presidential-level decisions. Putting all together, historians and presidential scholars have Reagan high marks in foreign policy.
In a C-SPAN survey of scholars — most of whom opposed his specific policies—ranked Reagan in terms of leadership in comparison with all 42 presidents. He ranked number nine in international relations. However the U. Regional power brokers and dictators such as Saddam Hussein in Iraq challenged the peace with a surprise attack on the small nation of Kuwait in President George H.
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Bush organized a coalition of allied and Middle Eastern powers which successfully pushed back the invading forces, but stopped short of invading Iraq and capturing Hussein; as a result, the dictator was free to rule unchecked for another twelve years. After the Gulf War , many scholars, such as Zbigniew Brzezinski , claimed the lack of a new strategic vision for U. During the s, the United States mostly scaled back its foreign policy budget as well as its cold war defense budget which amounted to 6. The United States also served as a peacekeeper in the warring ethnic disputes in the former Yugoslavia by cooperating as a U.
The surprise attack by terrorists belonging to a militant Al-Qaeda organization prompted a national mourning and paradigm shift in U. The focus on domestic prosperity during the s gave way to a trend of unilateral action under President George W. Bush to combat what was seen to be the growing trend of fundamentalist terrorism in the Middle East. The United States declared a War on Terrorism. This policy dominated U.
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Although both campaigns attracted international support, particularly the fighting in Afghanistan, the scale and duration of the war has lessened the motivation of American allies. Furthermore, when no WMDs were found after a military conquest of Iraq, there was worldwide skepticism that the war had been fought to prevent terrorism, and the war in Iraq has had serious negative public relations consequences for the image of the United States. The " Bush Doctrine " shifted diplomatic and security policy toward maximizing the spread of liberal political institutions and democratic values.