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In the early twentieth century Vollgraff excavated nine chamber tombs at Argos. Vollgraff reported that human bones were found before the entrance to Tomb VI at the level of the top of the door, buried under a pile of stones. Vollgraff seems to have thought that the skeleton had totally disintegrated, but the fact that all of the vases in the chamber had been shattered may suggest that the tomb was re-entered at some time after the final burial and then resealed.
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At this time the chamber may have also been cleared of skeletons and, for reasons unknown, not reused for burial. In the dromos of Tomb Wace found the remains of at least fifteen human skeletons. One of these no. II , the skeleton of a child tucked into a hollow in the dromos wall, was probably a secondary burial. Besides the fact that these skeletons were reportedly not in situ, there is another serious objection to this suggestion: the chamber of Tomb had been thoroughly cleared out and, apparently because a fault in the rock had resulted in serious structural damage, was not reused.
In any case, the clearing of the chamber renders it impossible to establish a definite link between any of the skeletons in the dromos and the final burial in the tomb.
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On top of the stones lay a skeleton, partially covered by a large limestone slab, which leaned against the wall of the dromos. There were no funeral gifts, but potsherds in the surrounding earth dated the burial to LH III, the period when the tomb was chiefly in use. Of this burial Blegen wrote: Its curious position directly upon the mass of stone fill, blocking approach to the door of the tomb, leads one to wonder if some close connection is not to be recognized between these remains and the remains interred within the chamber of the tomb.
Blegen noted similar ash-layers in other tombs in the cemetery, which he interpreted as remains of fires lit for purposes of fumigation. A mystery: and yet it is a curious fact that quite often no final in situ burial is found in unplundered Mycenaean chamber tombs.
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Something similar may have happened with Tomb VI at Argos; or this burial may have been made at some time after the tomb had been closed for good. But it also may simply have been a multiple burial unconnected with any burial in the chamber. There is a final, very questionable instance from Cypro-Classic II c. No skeletal remains were preserved in the chamber, possibly because the roof and one wall of the tomb had collapsed.
The dromos had an unusual, irregular shape: apparently one wall of the dromos was hollowed out near its entrance in order to accommodate a burial; a short extension 2.
The burial consisted of three well- preserved skeletons: two of these lay together, one no. I on its left, the other II on its right side, both in contracted position. A third skeleton III lay face down over skeleton no. II, with a single jug placed between their skulls. At the least this alteration suggests that the tomb was opened more than once: for why should the dromos of a newly made tomb be changed on the occasion of its first use, even if slaves were in fact slain during the funeral?
And we might well ask why such an alteration should have been made at any time. I wonder if there may have been some connection between this and the collapse of the roof and one wall of the chamber: was the tomb seen to be unsafe for further use, and a makeshift tomb constructed at the entrance of the dromos? If so, the skeletons might represent a simultaneous triple burial, or conceivably one or more of the skeletons had been removed from the ruined chamber to the new grave in the dromos.
And sizeable niches were cut in the walls of the dromoi of Tombs for a single burial and containing six vases but no skeletal remains : in each case the niche postdates the final use of the tomb. Like Tomb , Tombs , , and had all suffered serious damage to their chambers.
The chamber contained two burials, apparently of a man and a woman, which date to early Cypro-Geometric I. In the chamber there were three burials, all dating to early Cypro-Geometric I. In the middle of the dromos two skeletons were found lying on their backs with their heads towards the entrance of the dromos.
There were no funeral gifts, and the dromos fill consisted of intact layers of chavara. But here also portions of the roof and one of the walls of the chamber had caved in, and again we might ask if the tomb was opened and deemed unfit for use. There were two burial periods in the chamber of Tomb Of the first, assigned to early Cypro-Geometric I, only scattered skeletal material and some pottery remained.
This level was covered over with a layer of chavara, upon which lay a well-preserved skeleton of the later Cypro-Geometric III period, identified as the skeleton of a warrior from a piece of an iron pike lying at its side. The fill of the dromos consisted of a lower layer of chavara mixed with potsherds from the first burial period, a layer of homogeneous chavara, and a top layer of dark sandy earth.
The uppermost skeleton was covered with two stone slabs, with a third smaller slab placed over its neck. It was concluded that the body had been laid face down, bound hand and foot, in the dromos. Next to the lowermost burial were an amphora and a jug. Cuttings in the rock edge of the dromos suggest that the larger of the blocks had originally lain across the dromos. The killing may have been carried out on the unusual blocks: at least it is probable that they functioned together and played some role in the funeral, although it is curious that there were two blocks when we might expect either one or three ; and the difference in size may indicate that their functions were not identical.
It also seems likely that the three persons were slain in connection with the burial of the person whose skeleton lay in the chamber, although this burial is itself rather mysterious. Also, the upper part of his skeleton had been moved slightly from its original position. This tomb was excavated by the expedition of the University Museum University of Pennsylvania in under the direction of Virginia Grace and published in by A.
Partially beneath the blocking wall of the door, on a platform of earth, was another burial: The skeleton was placed with the head towards the entrance, with the arms extended and drawn very near to the body at the elbows and the legs close together at the knees.
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A single jug was placed over the left upper arm of the skeleton. Miss Grace thought, that this uncommon position of the skeleton indicated a sacrifice rather than a last burial. In the case of Tomb , I suggested that the burial may have been a burial displaced from the chamber; but the skeleton in the doorway of Tomb P.
Still, it is not certain that the burial in the doorway coincided with the final interment in the chamber. The burial which Pieridou considered the last without, however, making clear her reasons had been disturbed. There was no evidence of a pit or grave, and there were no funeral gifts. Still, it is strange that while the asses were found on floor level, the human skeleton lay less than a half a metre from the top of the dromos fill.
But Masson collected references to the tomb in the various writings of the excavator and reinterpreted the evidence. With this burial were found skeletons of horses buried with their bronze gear, mistakenly thought by Ohnefalsch-Richter to be pieces of armour. But skeleton h lay directly on the layer of fill 5 associated with the first burial period and was covered by the layer 4 associated with the second.
Tomb 10 was a rectangular shaft cut into the rock in between two chamber tombs 7 and 11 , which both date to the Cypro-Classic II period. A skeleton, without funeral gifts, lay on its back, uncomfortably wedged between the sides of the very narrow grave maximum width at the bottom: 0. Among the differences are the number of skeletons, the presence or absence of grave goods, the location of the burials, and the treatment of the corpses.
At first glance the burials in the dromoi of Lapithos Tombs and may seem closely comparable: in each case three skeletons were piled together in the dromos, the uppermost face down. The burials in the doorways of Lapithos Tombs P. All archaeology can tell us is that occasionally the citizens of Geometric Lapithos buried their dead in the doorways of tombs—apparently either because the chamber was considered no longer suitable for burial or because there was something special about the person interred in the doorway.
In the cases of Lapithos Tombs and and Salamis Tomb 83, the homogeneity of the fill indicates that the burials were made when the dromos was cleared and refilled for a final time. But again it is uncertain if the burials were related to any of the burials in the chamber. Structural damage may have rendered Tombs and unusable, necessitating burial in the dromos instead. The burial in the dromos of Salamis Tomb 2 was clearly connected with the funeral of the last person interred in the chamber, when two asses were killed and left in the dromos; and one of the humans may have been bound.
The dual burial in the dromos of Tamassos Tomb IV. Finally, the interpretation of the burial in Vouni Tomb 10 as that of a sacrificed slave is without foundation. From the relative size of the skeletons and the presence of three bone hairpins near the skull of the smaller, Blegen concluded that they were skeletons of a man and a woman.
Of graves only 16 contained more than one burial. Another grave contained five skeletons, three of adult females, one of an adult male, and one of an infant. And there were also four dual burials of adult males, at least one of which was simultaneous. Clearly, therefore, the majority of men in this community did not require their wives to accompany them to the grave. But even if the suicide of a wife upon the death of her husband was something deemed highly honourable, but not obligatory, we should expect better representation than we find in the Lerna cemetery.
The figures from other Middle Helladic cemeteries are similar. The dual burial at Asine was one of two dual burials in the graves excavated, and Grave VII at Gonia was the only grave of seven which contained more than one skeleton.
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But according to Herodotus, among the Scythians it was only at the funerals of kings that concubines along with servants were killed Hdt. With apparent reference to these two cases, S. It would not be fitting to close this section without mention of a Protogeometric burial recently excavated at Lefkandi in Euboea, certainly among the most spectacular and important discoveries in the history of Greek archaeology. A shaft, consisting of two compartments, contained in one compartment the burial of three or four horses, and in the other, which was lined with mudbrick coated with plaster, a human skeleton and the remains of a cremation in a bronze amphora.
Beside her head lay an iron knife with an ivory handle.
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In the amphora was found a remarkably well-preserved cloth, but it is unclear from the preliminary report what human remains, if any, had survived. On the grounds that the rim of the amphora was decorated with a hunting scene and that beside the amphora were found an iron sword, a spearhead, and a whetstone, it is thought that the amphora held the cremation of an adult male.
Above the grave a large apsidal building 10 m wide and at least 45 m long had been constructed in mudbrick on a socle of rough stones. But if her killing or suicide was motivated by a belief that she would accompany her husband or master in the life to come, then it may seem strange that her body was not cremated along with his on the funeral pyre, as, for example, in the Indian custom. In my opinion it has not yet been convincingly demonstrated that the young man was not simply a victim of earthquake rather than of sacrifice; but the possibility that the quake interrupted a violent scene of a non-sacral character should perhaps also be considered.